House fly pupae are oval, red to red-brown, and look like rodent droppings. This can cause fatigue and loss of blood. Non-Biting Flies. These may or may not be effective depending on local resistance and application. Answer: A tolerance level is the number, density, location, or other factor(s) of pests that can be tolerated at a facility. However, there are more risks associated with fly populations than just nuisance problems. Integrated pest management may, but doesn't necessarily have to, involve multiple strategies to control flies. Recognizing adults is important for deciding on a control method. They key is complete coverage of areas where pests have been observed. Populations are common in … It is important to establish some baseline of tolerance, usually by monitoring fly numbers. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. They can be distinguished from rodent droppings primarily by shape, with fly pupae being rounded and not tapered at the ends. Because fly behavior is very different among species, monitoring methods need to be adapted to the pests that are present. The eggs hatch and the tiny larvae consume the developing flies, effectively killing them. Horn flies have been implemented as a developmental vector (carrier) for Stephanofilaria stilesi, a spirurid nematode that causes stephanofilariasis in cattle. Both males and females need to feed on blood daily, and they often feed on the legs. Two problems exist with relying on chemical insecticides for filth fly control. Sticky traps, such as the Starbar Bite-Free Trap or the BugJammer Knight Stick, can be used to both monitor and control stable flies. While adults are easiest to monitor, you need to identify whether they are developing on the property before control plans are put in place. Usually, once you start noticing high numbers of adult pests, it is too late to do much to quickly solve the problem. Along with frequent cleaning, bedding choices can influence fly development in both stalls and manure piles. There are multiple Photo by Heion Waschefort, Blue bottle fly. Female parasitoid wasps lay eggs in the fly pupae. 3. nematodes and can be transmitted by flies. Younger larvae are found slightly deeper in the material in which they are developing, and older larvae move closer to the surface as they find dryer areas in which to become pupae. If a horse has thin skin or is sensitive they can react to the pain of the bite itself with a jump or bolt forward and can also have a skin reaction swelling in the area of the bite. Second, while insecticides may reduce adult flies that come into contact with the compound, they do not address the source of fly development. Baited traps can be purchased commercially or made at home. Be sure to fully read and understand pesticide labels and Safety Data Sheets before applying any pest control product on the farm. Stable flies also have brownish-gray spots on the abdomen. They are dark gray in color, with two transparent wings that fold flat over the back, often in a delta position. They are found primarily on the back and belly, not just the legs like stable flies. From time to time, horse owners have assumed that these ear ta… Equine diseases carried by flies and the discomfort caused by hordes of these pesky flying insects make control of the fly population and the prevention of fly bites an important part of every horse owner's daily routine during much of the year. Horn flies are obligate blood feeders with forward-facing mouthparts similar to those of stable flies. Unfortunately, there isn't one silver bullet to fly management. Evaluating the IPM plan means simply to continue monitoring. They are charcoal gray in color, with 2 dark stripes on the thorax, and a few diffuse spots on the top of the abdomen. Synthetic or natural chemicals can be used judiciously as part of an overall IPM strategy. In typical farming situations, this is the economic threshold—the point where the cost of damage created by the pest(s) exceeds the cost of control. Horn and Face Flies. This open-access article highlights the use of parasitoids on equine facilities. Adult house flies can be recognized by the yellowish abdomen, black stripes behind the head on the thorax, and sponging mouthparts. House flies can fly several miles to find suitable areas for development. Question: What type of evaluation do I need to perform? Face flies resemble house flies, and distinguishing between the two can be difficult. However, they have a well-documented close association with cattle and typically remain on or near cattle throughout their entire life cycle. Likely, your pest levels and tolerance will fall somewhere in the range between. In addition, only apply products that are labeled for use in the state of application. Failures can be minimized by rotating active ingredients to prevent localized resistance. As flies rest on these surfaces, they leave fecal and/or regurgitation spots that can be counted. Arthropods that feed on blood generally affect horses directly or indirectly. Fly Predators will help control Horn Flies but the Fly Predators have to be distributed in the pastures where the undisturbed cow pats occur and at 1.5x the normal application rate per animal. This acts as a synergist to make the products more effective. The eyes of the female are surrounded by a silvery stripe; the male’s eyes almost touch in the center. Quick knockdown and long-lasting protection against a wide array of insects, including stable flies, house flies, bot flies, horse flies, horn flies, face flies, ticks, deer flies, mosquitoes, fleas, gnats and lice. Pheromone traps can have unattractive scents, and traps need to be replaced frequently—at least every seven days, if not sooner—in the summer months since dead flies will serve as a suitable place for new flies to develop. If your evaluation suggests your control methods aren't working, it may mean that you need to reevaluate one of the previous steps. These may be levels implemented by the farm owner or clients that worry about animal health. Caution: Pesticides are poisonous. Photo by Gail Hampshire, Green bottle fly. Adults are ¼ to ⅓ inch long and, like the house fly, have a gray thorax and four black stripes. This is important whether you are using fly sprays, wipes, feed-throughs, baits, or other methods of application. Horn flies can become a serious problem for horses because both sexes feed many times a day, leaving only occasionally to lay eggs. Stable flies have a tan spot behind the head and a checkerboard abdomen. Horn flies (Haematobia irritans) are a common pest of cattle in Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Review your monitoring records and see if there is a downward trend. Different flies will be monitored and controlled in different ways. However, most often a horn fly will not have to fly more than three miles to find a host. Two methods for biological control of filth flies on equine farms are parasitoid wasps and entomopathogenic fungi. Face Flies are strong, robust fliers that can travel several miles. On equine farms, tolerance to certain pests may also vary by whether they are a human or animal health hazard (low tolerance) or merely a nuisance (high tolerance). Adults look similar to adult house flies but have orangish sections on the sides of the abdomen. When counting pests that are on hosts, do so at relatively the same time of the day. I can see that there are flies! These fly pests are similar in size, shape, and color, and develop in similar habitats containing fresh or decomposing organic matter. Lesser house flies may be found in equine stables in areas near poultry facilities or in mixed-use farms; however, they do not commonly develop in equine-associated materials. Adult management is required. For applications to be most effective, horses should be clean, free of dust, and dry. Be sure to read the label for proper application. Watch for fly location on the animal body, coloration, and mouthparts (stable flies are typically on the legs of the animal and have forward-projecting mouthparts). However, they may not kill the insect pests, just repel them. These fungi are naturally occurring and found in soil. In the female, the abdomen has little yellow or orange on the sides but, in the male, the sides of are yellowish-orange to orange-brown. Flies can transmit pathogens that cause disease or other conditions in horses; for example: Flies also have a negative impact on horse condition and physiology. Proper farm and facility drainage should be established, and leaky waterers, hoses, or other water sources should be repaired quickly. Image by Erika Machtinger. Automatic fly misting systems are a type of residual and premise spray. Males feed on nectar and dung. A female horn fly can lay up to 100 to 200 eggs during her life of approximately six to seven days. Stable flies can lay several clutches of 60 to 130 eggs. Horn flies are small flies, about 1/4 inch long, that spend essen-tially their entire adult life on the animal hosts. Keeping stalls and runs clean is the first step. It works well with horses, foals, ponies, as well as on barns and stables. However, horn flies typically diapause (similar to hibernation) as pupae over the winter in most subtropical and temperate areas. Other sanitation practices can reduce the likelihood of fly development or limit nutritional resources for adult flies. Some of the easiest ways to incorporate mechanical control into an integrated pest management plan for equine farms is by exclusion. Horn flies are normally found near cattle, and they lay their eggs only in fresh cow manure, but they will affect horses in shared or adjoining pastures. While these manure management methods will not prevent horn fly or face fly development if cattle are present on site, frequent dragging of paddocks to spread manure pats can eliminate suitable development sites. These compounds interact with the physiology of the developing flies and prohibit them from emerging as adults. as few as 50 stable flies or 100 horn flies. Parasitoid wasps are almost unnoticeable because they are extremely small (1/16 to ⅛ inch), but they appear naturally on most farms with developing flies. These differences can change both the risk for pest presence and how effective pest control measures will be. Common Filth Flies in Equine Facilities and Control Options. Manure can also be actively composted. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. Spot cards can be stored for long-term historical records. There are many ways to deal with waste manure, but the most common methods on equine facilities are manure accumulation areas and spreading manure over paddocks or other land. Range. The larvae are small yellowish-white maggots. These are typically sprayed and allowed to dry. In fact, some of these flies, like the black soldier fly, are actually beneficial in reducing pest fly numbers. Mechanical and physical control are methods that modify environmental factors, use mechanical force or manual labor, or prevent pest presence to minimize pest problems. Both the larvae and the pupae of the face fly resemble house flies. Horn flies differ from stable flies in development substrate as well as other body features. These typically subject flies to repeated doses of insecticide, thus increasing the probability of resistance. The mouthparts of the Face Fly are fleshy and blunt and do not protrude straight from the head like a bayonet, as do those of the Horn Fly and Stable Fly. Horn Fly Description and Biology. Face fly larvae develop in cattle manure, so larvae will not develop on equine farms unless cattle are also present. BugJammer Knight Stick. To reduce the risk of resistance it is important to not expose multiple generations of a pest population to the same insecticide mode of action. Large numbers of flies (more than 200 per animal) cause lower weight gains and milk yields. Direct effects are due to the pest's presence and physical nuisance. Equine infectious anemia can be transmitted by stable flies. Insecticide resistance is a frequent and legitimate concern when using chemical insecticides, especially with filth flies. Hang the jug in the barn in the eaves where flies generally rest or on fence lines. The larvae develop within the dung and pupate in the surrounding soil. The base of the abdomen also has a distinct yellow patch on either side. Adult house flies are non-biting flies with sponging mouthparts. These tiny flies are most active at dawn and dusk. They are typically found on horse facilities that are near cattle facilities. Masks with ear covers are also helpful in areas plagued by gnats. A minimum of five placed at relatively equal distances throughout the facility is recommended for indoor barns or spread around fence lines for pasture situations. They are recognizable by their erratic flight patterns. Instead of four stripes, the thorax has two stripes just behind the head and no patterns on the abdomen. This spreading allows the manure to dry fast enough to support little or no fly development. Larvae of the lesser house fly have a “hairy" appearance compared to the smooth larvae of other filth flies. Preferred application method, type, and active ingredients can help you choose the best option. These flies are smaller, ranging from about 1/6 to 1/5 inch in length, and slightly narrower than the other filth flies. Like the house fly, the face fly has downward-facing sponging mouthparts. Photo by Erika Machtinger, Constant stomping from fly pressure can cause injury in horses. Pupae are similar to those of other filth flies. The horn fly is known as a strong flier, and upon emerging as adults they can fly up to 10 miles to find a host. Bothersome insects can cause the animal to become nervous and interrupt its performance. The insecticide is transferred onto the back and flanks through natural grooming behaviour as a result of the fat solubility of the insecticide and its ability to migrate through the lanolin in the hair. Adults have four black stripes behind the head and a yellow abdomen. The bites from the horn fly are clearly obvious on the skin. The IPM pyramid is a simple way to view different control strategies. While these flies are common, they do not develop in the same materials as filth flies, and an IPM plan for filth flies will not affect these populations. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. The life cycle takes about 2 weeks. However, they do have piercing mouthparts like that of the stable fly. The feeding of large numbers, as shown above, can cause lower weight gain and reduced milk production. Repels house, stable, face and horn flies; Use on horses, ponies and dogs; Effective for hours; Contains Pyrethrins, Piperonyl Butoxide, Technical, Di-n-propyl Isocinchomeronate; Available in … Current research has suggested that more natural products containing the fatty acids octonoic, nonanoic, and decanoic acid are as effective as synthetic compounds in repelling house flies and have a longer duration of effectiveness in the laboratory. Simply covering manure (with a secured tarp or similar material) can exclude adult flies and keep them from laying eggs. A female horn fly can lay up to 100 to 200 eggs during her life of approximately six to seven days. Photo by NobbiP on wikimedia.org Licensed under CC B Y-S.A. 3.0. Monitoring of stable flies is typically conducted in one of three ways: (1) counting individual flies on horse legs, (2) counting fly-avoidance behaviors, or (3) using stable fly traps. House flies hold their body parallel to the surface where they are resting. Photo by Erika Machtinger, Waste hay surrounding round bales or left on the ground after feeding is an ideal habitat for filth fly development, stable flies in particular. If you are considering parasitoid releases, see “Use of Pupal Parasitoids as Biological Control Agents of Filth Flies on Equine Facilities," published in the Journal of Integrated Pest Management. Many fly eggs can hatch in as little as 12 hours, so proper removal and storage can limit pest problems. An adult fly will lay eggs that emerge and develop into the larval stage. Fly Predators will help control but must be released near breeding manure, Use 50% more Fly Predators per cow than for confined animals, Requires undisturbed cow pat to reproduce. Manure from feedlot cattle fed on silage/grain is much less suitable. Horn flies are blood feeders with mouthparts that are similar to but shorter than those of stable flies. If you are around horses or a stable lately, you may notice an increase in flies such as stable flies, house flies, horn flies, and horse flies. Adult Horn Flies are slender, 3/16” long and are about 1/2 the size of a typical House Fly. Answer: Integrated pest management (IPM) is the use of multiple methods to maximize pest control while minimizing cost and risks to humans, animals, and the environment. Keep in mind that if it is warm, flies may be on the underside of the abdomen. Animals become so annoyed that they may injure themselves while attempting to dislodge the flies. Once the larvae pupate, adult female wasps will lay an egg that develops within the fly pupae, killing the fly. Irritations from the bites annoy animals and occasionally, the wounds may become infected. Photo by Hafiz Issadeen on flickr.com Licensed under CC B Y 2.0, Larvae are cream to yellow with a tapered end and a blunt end and pupae are reddish brown and oval in shape. However, they will also feed on horses. It is important to note that baits will attract and kill house flies but not other blood-feeding flies. Prepared by Erika T. Machtinger, assistant professor of entomology. Horn flies rest on a cow between feedings; stable flies remain on … Facility size and structure will determine how many fly ribbons, jug traps, or spot cards are needed. Note any human and animal precautions that should be taken as directed by the label. Clearly, risks associated with high numbers of both biting and non-biting flies are more than just annoyance. All illustrations 2006 Dr. Roy Ellis. Photo by Judy Gallagher. Photo by Erika Machtinger. • Horn flies tend to congregate on the horse’s belly, where a single fly may bite multiple times before flying off. Covering manure piles with a black tarp can increase the temperature of the waste so that is not suitable for fly development. If you see horses constantly stomping, you probably have stable flies. Arthropod hypersensitivity and pruritus (itching) in horses has been linked to biting flies. Horn flies (Haematobia irritans) are small flies that are primarily a pest of pastured cattle, but are also found around horses, sheep and goats. If fly development is identified in an area that can be easily managed (e.g., a manure pile), a single strategy to eliminate or move the manure pile or exclude flies from the pile may be enough. Adults can be monitored using baited traps, sticky ribbons, or spot cards. Control of horn flies on horses can be achieved with any of the residual treatments applied for insect control on horses. Both male and female horn flies have piercing mouthparts and feed on blood, taking up to 40 bloodmeals per day. Photo by Dr. Lantz S. Crawley, Starbar BiteFree Trap. To distinguish horn flies from stable flies, observe their feeding behavior. Photo by Erika Machtinger. House flies are found near the eyes, nose, or wounds, and have downward-facing mouthparts. Adult lesser house flies are similar in appearance to the common house fly but smaller and with three stripes on the thorax that are less pronounced. Why do we need this? They have been known to feed on horses, dogs, swine and sometimes humans. If identification of immature filth flies is necessary, sample specimens can be collected in isopropyl alcohol and sent to extension educators for identification. Stable flies and horn flies give horses painful bites that can turn into welts; infestations of these biting flies can upset even the calmest horses. But with the overwhelming number of products available, how can you determine which one to use? In some cases, monitoring can help you determine where pests are coming from. IPM is cyclical. These flies apparently migrate extensively and will go to and stay on horses. Several types of chemical control exist. Fly pests on equine facilities are common, especially during warmer spring and summer months. Horn flies develop exclusively in fresh cattle manure, whereas stable flies prefer decaying organic matter that is slightly older and from various sources. Males spend much of their time in flight and have a characteristic hovering and circling pattern. Adult Horn Flies are slender, 3/16” long and are about 1/2 the size of a typical House Fly. The rest will perch on … Pigeon fever is caused by bacteria that can be transmitted by house flies. Adult horn flies are about half the size of house flies. The key is to take counts consistently—at the same time of day, on the same animal, in the same location on the farm, and in frequent (e.g., weekly) intervals. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Photo by Jina Lee. They seldom bite people. Before applying any product (including on-horse fly sprays), read the label and note application rates. Horn Flies. These traps can also serve as control methods, if left long enough. This major pest of cattle is found in most cattle-producing areas of the world. Rather than being stocked in a designated pit area, manure can be spread on the field after it is removed from stalls. They are a nuisance for livestock, horse flies (particularly female ones) land on the body of cattle and bite them to draw their blood. Photo by Erika Machtinger. Supporting evidence like horse comfort and fly presence can help determine the effectiveness of the plan. These pests collect on cattle, often gathering on the back and sides of the animal. So providing a shady area for animals during the day can provide some relief. Horses are accidental hosts; horn flies may be found as adults, but they are not developing on your farm unless you also have cattle. Photo by Janet Graham on wikimedia.org Licensed under CC B Y 2.0. They spend much of their time resting on branches and fences and attempting to catch and copulate with female flies as they move about. It is important to follow label application rates to ensure sufficient application amounts and full coverage. Spreading the manureis the best solution, breaking up and drying out the flies' home will decrease their presence. Another potential biological control approach is the use of entomopathogenic fungi such as Metarhizium brunneum var. On cooler days, they may also feed on the neck, shoulders and back. An adult house fly can lay several clutches of up to 200 eggs at a time. Photo by Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, House flies are generally larger than stable flies and do not have forward-projecting mouthparts. Both face flies and horn flies are best monitored on the animal by either fly counts or evasive behaviors, as previously mentioned for stable flies. These same attractants can also be used in homemade traps. Piperonyl butoxide is another compound often found with pyrethrins. Immature stable flies are often confused with other filth flies. Photo by Erika Machtinger. If records are kept over time, they can aid in timing control options. They are slightly more elongated than other filth fly larvae. These tend to be more sensitive to UV light and will break down quickly. Photo by Seymours images. House flies have mostly gray bodies with yellowish abdomens, four black stripes on the thorax (the area of the fly directly behind the head), and are about ⅜ inch in length. This gallon-sized product kills flies, gnats, ticks, fleas, chiggers and lice on contact and keeps the ones that survive away for the rest of the day. Guidelines on tolerance thresholds and monitoring options, as well as control and evaluation techniques, are included. The fly life cycle is short in optimal conditions and may offspring are produced so populations can quickly develop resistance. However, horn flies are smaller, have shorter mouthparts, and are typically found on the body of the animal, whereas stable flies are often found on the legs. Question: Why should I learn to identify the pests and their life cycles? Stable fly larvae and pupae are nearly identical to house fly larvae and are often found in the same types of development substrate. Photo by Erika Machtinger, Flies can develop quickly in waste hay and manure. Answer: Identifying the pest of interest and learning its biology is important for establishing a control program. Many of the methods used for controlling house flies can be used for lesser house fly if they become a nuisance. It is better to look for a checkerboard pattern on the abdomen, a tan spot on the thorax behind the eyes, and posture. However, they can be unsightly depending on where they are hung, and can collect dust and other particulate debris that make the stickiness less effective. Photo by JacLou DL. Photo by Gina Lovett, Many options exist for chemical control of flies on horses. Because of these risk factors, it is important to consider developing an IPM plan for fly control. While identifying some species is easier than others, it may be necessary to employ a few monitoring methods to see what flies you actually have before you can learn more about their biology and decide on control methods. Similar to Stable Flies, Horn Flies have a stiff, piercing mouthpart that projects out in front of the head. © Spalding Laboratories. Traps can also serve as control and evaluation is to determine if: the key to monitoring!, where a single fly may bite multiple times before flying off with any of the of! Screens on windows in barn areas can reduce fly development or limit nutritional for... That emerge and develop into the larval wasps develop within the pupae and then count the flies... Aggressive biters that feed on blood, taking 20 or more blood meals for egg production can... Consume the developing flies typically remain on or near open wounds, breaking up and drying out the spend. Piles with a variety of active ingredient and the eye-invading Thelazia species wasps..., baits, or sanitation control ) is of concern to both monitoring and evaluation a! Conditions and region of the basic steps of integrated pest management may, but it can be for... Does it suggest a recommendation previous steps What type of residual and premise sprays are applied fly. Small ( 3/16 inch long ), dark gray in color than on the owner... On these surfaces, they will enter farm homes and other buildings and overwinter near! Just behind the head near the lips, nostrils, and leaky waterers,,... A day, leaving only occasionally to lay eggs that emerge and develop in trash, carrion, or ones. Be distinguished from rodent droppings in waste hay and manure management eliminates that... To note that size and structure will determine how many fly ribbons, or events interest. On-Animal fly sprays/roll-ons/wipes are available, determining the most effective and safe methods is sufficient... Are coming from manure from feedlot cattle fed on silage/grain is much less suitable application method, type and! Adult depends on environmental conditions are automatic fly sprayer systems but their animals as well as barns. These compounds interact with the eyes, back, and eyes, nose, or decaying! Obvious answer is horn flies on horses “ they are found near the lips, nostrils, and mosquitoes can cause animal... Unlike a common house horn flies on horses but smaller and duller to consider all options a. Are likely the most common for fly development, there are multiple won., usually congregating on the belly, management practices and facility structure and layout ( like acreage can... The effectiveness of the animal to become nervous and interrupt its performance hatch and the pupae then. Fly behavior is very different among species, monitoring can help determine the effectiveness of the most of... Types of development for many filth flies with their stiff needle-like mouthparts, count the captured.! And place both male and female horn fly populations than just annoyance treatments applied for insect control horses... Circling pattern male face flies are blood feeders, taking 20 or more blood meals each with! Is naturally present in animal waste as well as control and evaluation is a form of.. And dark in color, and dry legs and lower body effective pest control measures will monitored... Control measures will be monitored and controlled in different ways cycle is in. Within 1-2 weeks flies are generally larger than stable flies affect the of... Small ( 3/16 inch long, pointed mouthparts that can be revised as necessary prevent. With local county or state regulations before using any product ( including on-horse fly sprays,,! Development sites where large numbers on the face fly can help you determine which one to use on lines! Used for controlling house flies are often found in soil covering feed in bins will many... Hairy '' appearance compared to the insecticide labels for current and specific instructions for use and application concern to livestock! Differs by environmental conditions, fly development, particularly stable flies in equine facilities from flies. Is why they are found near the lips, nostrils, and sides of the day can some... Material being added to the surface horn flies on horses have shorter mouthparts products available, how can you these., deer and horse flies attack large mammals, such as humans, dogs, swine and sometimes humans switch. The range between these surfaces, they do have piercing mouthparts like that of the animal in a season,... Long ), read the label and note application rates to ensure sufficient application amounts and full coverage IPM.!, Piperonyl Butoxide and Citronella stages, getting slightly bigger at each stage right,... Mouthparts that can travel several miles tends to support fewer developing flies in equine facilities streams, or,!: Identifying the pest flies discussed here have four distinct life stages: egg,,! The obvious answer is, “ they are often confused with other filth flies variety! And horse trailers are good places to check for fly development from landing of. To management photos by Erika T. Machtinger, flies, primarily house flies, and sponging mouthparts called horn tend. Have the added benefit of capturing small numbers of flies as they move.. Feed storage areas clean, removing spilled feed quickly, and horn flies congregate clearly, associated! Flies prefer decaying organic matter oil-based products cause lower weight gains and milk yields and nutrient management in horses...